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Daily Mail: Developing a vaccine for ovarian cancer... and immunotherapy for the kidneys and esophagus


The British newspaper, “Daily Mail”, revealed a new treatment for kidney cancer and preventing ovarian tumors, which was revealed during the largest cancer conference in the world last week, where there was good news for patients suffering from some types of cancer that are difficult to treat.


The British newspaper, “Daily Mail”, said that mustard gas is famous for its use in the battlefield against cancer, but its main chemical is “mustard nitrogen”, which is the basis for the oldest forms of chemotherapy to fight cancer, in the 1940s.


The first chemotherapy drugs, although primitive, worked on the same principle as chemotherapy today, like toxins that turn the body into a hostile environment, in which cancer cannot survive, and thanks to this progress and those that followed many of the deadly cancers are now completely curable. .


Last week, at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, another wave of exciting cancer discoveries was revealed. There was good news for patients with some hard-to-treat cancers, thanks to immune system-boosting drugs that help the body fight Cancer, and even the hope of getting a "vaccine" for ovarian cancer, moreover, these drugs often have far fewer side effects than traditional treatments such as chemotherapy.


An immune-boosting drug could reduce disease recurrence and mortality in kidney cancer patients by up to a third, and experts also say the drug could provide lifelong protection for patients.


Kidney cancer affects more than 13,000 Britons annually, and with standard treatments including chemotherapy, half of patients live longer than ten years, however, in the other 50% of cases, the cancer returns, and the outlook may be bleak for these patients. More than 5,000 people die in the UK each year.


The result of a landmark trial, announced last week, could soon see that number drop dramatically in the study. The drug was prescribed immediately after surgery to 1,000 patients with the most common type of kidney cancer, renal cell carcinoma. Two years later, patients who Those receiving the drug were one-third less likely to have the cancer return or die compared to patients who did not take the drug.


The newspaper said that the new immunomodulatory drug, which helps the immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells, is given by injection once every 3 weeks, and it has already been shown to be a remarkably successful treatment in some patients with skin cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, and lung cancer. Lymph nodes.


Previously, it was given to kidney cancer patients when tumors came back, and all else failed, but this trial was the first time it had been shown to benefit patients at an early stage, stopping the cancer from returning in the first place.


As with all immunotherapy drugs, not all patients can benefit - in this case, their tumors must have a genetic 'distinctive trait' known as PDL-1, the paper said.


Long-term survival data is still needed to give a full picture of how effective treatment is, but the scientists involved in the study believe that in many cases the cancer may be gone for good," the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) says. He will agree to use it very soon.


Colin Wrigleys 50 was diagnosed with kidney cancer in September 2018 after noticing blood in his urine. He underwent surgery to remove his kidneys and immediately began using immunotherapy after doctors told him there was a very high risk of his cancer coming back.


 "Every scan I've had since then has been clear, I stopped treatment in 2019 and there was no sign of cancer," Colin said.


Professor Thomas Bowles, an oncologist at the Royal Free Hospital in London, and lead researcher added: 'Once your immune system learns to detect cancer, it will remember what it looks like. life.


There was good news for patients with fatal esophageal cancer, with an immune-boosting drug showing nearly double survival when compared to chemotherapy alone. The prognosis for disease that affects the food pipe or the esophagus is often poor, and symptoms appear. Such as persistent cough and difficulty swallowing, delayed once it spreads.


On average, patients with one of the most common types, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, live for only 10 months or less after diagnosis. Traditionally, first-line treatment is chemotherapy, then immunotherapy, when chemotherapy stops working.


The new treatment protocol, devised by British doctors at the Royal Marsden Hospital in London, was described as revolutionary, as patients in the trial were given an immune drug that works in a similar way to the immune drug used to treat kidney cancer, which helps the immune system to search for and destroy tumors, along with Chemotherapy, or in combination with another immunotherapy drug.


Those given the immunotherapy and chemotherapy had a median survival rate of more than 15 months, and those given the immunotherapy group 14 months, much longer than the rates observed in patients treated with chemotherapy only, who lived on average For another nine months.


Vaccines are already widely used to prevent infection, especially corona, and all vaccines work by training the body's immune system to recognize and combat invading pathogens, usually by introducing a harmless part of the pathogen, with which the immune system interacts But it does not cause disease.


The newly developed vaccine for ovarian cancer works in the same way, it contains bits of DNA found in ovarian tumor cells, the immune system works and attacks real cancer cells in the experiment, and the vaccines were given once a month for a year after surgery or chemotherapy, the results showed that In 45 patients, the vaccine stopped the progression of the cancer for up to 10 months.


Dr Arkenau said, “Vaccines will be the next big development in the fight against cancer and will render the immunotherapies we are talking about now irrelevant. This particular vaccine appears to work very well in patients who do not have the BRCA breast cancer genes.

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